Here is a quick quiz about French culinary terms. How many do you know?
1. au jus
4. a la carte
5. cordon bleu
6. au gratin, gratinée
12. à la mode
14. fois gras
16. petits fours
17. sauter (sauté)
20. filet mignon
a. goose liver
b. individually served dishes in a restaurant that are priced separately
c. food that is browned on top, usually with cheese and/or bread crumbs
d. in the style or fashion of, often w/ ice cream
e. egg tart filled with cheese, onions, ham or other ingredients
f. in natural juices
g. provençal vegetable ragout with/ onions, eggplants, tomatoes, peppers
h. small layered, iced cakes
i. before-dinner drink
j. earthenware cooking container
k. sauce kept warm over flame for dipping bread, meat and vegetables
l. southern France favorite fish chowder
m. restaurant w/ bar
n. literally "cute steak" - a very tender center cut of steak
o.stuffed with Swiss cheese and ham
p. sweet pastries or pastry shop
q. small thin slice of meat, usually chicken or veal
r. to cook quickly in hot pan, tossing the food so that it "jumps"..
s. sweet fruity or spicy spirit drunk after a meal or used to flavor desserts
t. prized fungus with strong flavor found under the ground, expensive
Here are the answers
1. au jus f. in natural juices
2. brasserie m. restaurant w/ bar
3. fondue k. sauce kept warm over flame for dipping bread, meat, or vegetables
4. a la carte b. individually served dishes that are priced separately
5. cordon bleu o. stuffed with Swiss cheese and ham
6. au gratin, gratinée c. food that is browned on top, usually with cheese or bread crumbs
7. ratatouille g. provençal vegetable ragout with/ onions, eggplants, tomatoes,
8. terrine j. earthenware cooking container
9. liqueur s. sweet fruity or spicy spirit drunk after a meal or used to flavor
10. truffle t. prized fungus with strong flavor found under the ground, expensive
11. apéritif i. before-dinner drink
12. à la mode d. in the style or fashion of, often w/ ice cream
13. bouillabaisse l. southern France favorite fish chowder
14. fois gras a. goose liver
15. quiche e. egg tart filled with cheese, onions, ham or other ingredients
16. petits fours h. small layered, iced cakes
17. sauter (sauté) r. to cook quickly in hot pan, tossing the food so that it "jumps"
18. escalope q. small thin slice of meat, usually chicken or veal
19. pâtisserie p. sweet pastries or pastry shop
20. filet mignon n. literally "cute steak" - a very tender center cut of steak
French Cooking Terms
A roasting pan or baking dish partially filled with water to allow food to cook more slowly and be protected from direct high heat. Used for custards and terrines.
Creamy pudding that is made with cream and eggs, then set with gelatin.
Fritters. Small dollops of dough that are fried.
Butter and flour mixed together in equal parts and used to thicken liquids.
A shellfish soup that has been thickened.
A stew made from meat that has not been browned or fried. Usually refers to stews made of lamb, chicken or veal.
Small puff pastry cases.
Broth or stock.
A mixture of fresh herbs tied together with string and used to flavor stews, soups etc. It refers to a mix of parsley, bay leaf, thyme (and sometimes celery stalk). The bouquet is removed before serving.
Vegetables cut into very small diced pieces.
An appetizer consisting of a small bread or biscuit base covered with a flavored topping.
Browned bread crumbs.
To remove the backbone from a rack of ribs.
To chop roughly
Broth that has been made clear.
A thick sauce usually made from one main ingredient, such as raspberry coulis.
Flavored liquid used for cooking fish.
Very thin pancakes.
A mixture of potato with ground cooked meat, fish or poultry formed into balls, patties or other shapes and coated with a breading before frying.
Bread piece dipped in butter and baked until it is crisp.
Crust. Sometimes refers to a pastry crust, sometimes to toasted or fried bread.
Small cubes of bread used as a garnish is salads and soups.
Small mould shaped like a castle used for moulding salads or baking cakes.
To deglaze, to loosen browned juices and fat from the bottom of a frying pan or saucepan by adding liquid, bringing to a boil and stirring. The liquid is usually water, wine or broth.
To extract juices from meat, fish or vegetables, usually by salting them, then soaking or washing. It is usually done to remove a strong taste.
To skim off the scum that accumulates at the top of a stock or sauce.
Finely chopped raw mushrooms, used as a stuffing. Sometimes combined with chopped ham or scallops.
The term used to refer to something served before the main course but is used now to refer to the actual main course.
Dessert or sweet, but not including pastries.
A thin slice of meat that is often pounded out to make it thinner.
Flamber or Flambé
To set alcohol on fire.
Something that is iced or set on or in a bed of ice.
A stew made from poultry, meat or rabbit that has a white sauce.
Glace de Viande
Reduced brown stock used to add color and flavor to sauces.
Gratiner or Au Gratin
To sprinkle the surface of a cooked food with bread crumbs and butter, and sometimes cheese and brown under the broiler. The finished food is referred to as au gratin as in au gratin potatoes.
First course or appetizer.
Jus or Jus de Viande
The juices that occur naturally from cooking.
A thickened gravy.
Ingredients used for thickening sauces, soups or other liquids.
Small diced mixed vegetables, usually containing at least one root
French word for a covered earthenware container for soup. The soup is both cooked and served in it.
A mixture of braising vegetables.
To hand meat, game or poultry.
A cake tin that is wider at the base than at the top and only about 1" in depth.
To coat, mask or cover with something.
The word literally means "nut". It usually means nut brown in color. For example, beurre noisette is butter browned over heat until it becomes a nut brown color. It can also refer to boneless rack of lamb that is rolled, tied and cut into rounds. The word can also refer to hazelnuts.
A term that refers to the style of cooking that features lighter dishes with lighter sauces and very fresh ingredients.
A very thick mixture, usually made from a combination of flour, butter and milk, that is used as a base for dishes such as soufflés and fish cakes.
To coat with egg and crumbs before frying.
A wrapping of parchment paper around fish or meat used for cooking. The paper retains moisture in the food.
Refers to potatoes molded into balls with a melon scoop and fried or roasted.
A basic mixture or paste. Often refers to uncooked dough or pastry.
A paste made of liver, pork or game.
A sweet or pastry, it also refers to a cake shop.
To insert fat, bacon, ham etc into meat or poultry.
A young chicken.
Minced fish or meat mixture that is formed into small shapes and poached. It also refers to a shape that the minced mixture is made into.
Flour mixed with water or egg white and used to seal pans when cooking food slowly. Often used when cooking a ragoût.
To quickly fry meats or vegetables in hot fat to warm them through.
Melted butter to which flour has been added. Used as a thickener for sauces or soups.
Garlic and oil emulsion used as flavoring.
A deep frying pan with a lid, used for recipes that require fast frying, then slow cooking.
Pâté or mixture of minced ingredients, baked or steamed in a loaf shaped container.
A dish cooked in a mould that is higher than it is wide and has sloping sides.
A type of sauce made from butter, flour, cream and stock.
A large pastry case made of puff pastry that is usually used as a container for creamed dishes, such as creamed chicken.
· 1 cup sifted all purpose flour = 1 cup unsifted all purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons or = 1 1/4 cups sifted cake and pastry flour.
· 1 cup cake and pastry flour = 1 cup minus 2 tbsp all-purpose flour.
· 1 cup sifted self-rising flour = 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 tsp baking powder and 1/2 tsp salt.
· 1 tbsp cornstarch (for thickening) = 2 tbsp flour or = 2 tsp quick cooking tapioca.
· 1 tsp baking powder = 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 3/4 tsp cream of tartar.
· 1 tsp double-acting baking powder = 1 1/2 tsp phosphate baking powder or = 2 tsp tartrate baking powder.
· 1 cup butter = 1 cup margarine (hard/brick type) or = 1 cup shortening.
· 1 cup liquid honey = 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid.
· 1 cup corn syrup = 1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid.
· 1 cup granulated sugar = 1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed or = 1 1/3 cups brown sugar.
· 1 cup buttermilk or sour milk = 1 tbsp lemon juice or vinegar in a 1 cup measure plus add milk
to make the 1 cup. Let stand 5 minutes.
· 1 cup buttermilk = 1 cup plain yogurt.
· 1 cup sour cream = 1 cup plain yogurt.
· 1 cup milk = 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water.
· 1 cup skim milk = 3 tbsp skim milk powder plus 1 cup water.
· 1 cup cream = 3/4 cup milk plus 1/4 cup butter.
· 1/2 cup oil = 1/2 cup melted butter or = 1/2 cup solid shortening, melted.
· 1 ounce chocolate (1 square) = 3 tbsp cocoa plus 1 tbsp butter or shortening.
· 1 package active dry yeast = 1 tbsp active dry yeast or = 1 cake of compressed yeast.
· 1 whole egg (approximately 1/4 cup) = 2 egg yolks plus 1 tbsp water. Omit the water for custards and similarly textured food.
· 1 cup meat stock (eg. beef broth) = 1 cup consomme or canned meat broth.
· 1 cup meat stock = 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup hot water or = 1 tsp instant bouillon.
· 4 cups chicken stock = 1 - 4 to 5 pound chicken, boiled for stock or = 4 cups canned broth or = 4 tsp instant chicken bouillon. Another cooking substitution would be 4 instant bouillon cubes plus 4 cups of water.
· 1 cup tomato juice = 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water.
· 1 cup tomato sauce = 1/2 cup tomato paste plus 1/2 cup water.
· 1 cup ketchup = 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup sugar plus 2 tbsp vinegar.
· 1 clove garlic = 1/8 tsp garlic powder or 1/2 tsp garlic salt.
· 2 tbsp fresh chopped green or red pepper = 1 tbsp dried pepper flakes.
· 1 tsp dry mustard = 1 tbsp prepared mustard.
· 1 small onion = 1/4 cup chopped or = 1 tbsp dehydrated minced onion or = 1 tbsp onion salt.
· 1 tbsp fresh herbs (eg. parsley or basil) = 1 tsp dried.
· Juice of 1 lemon = 3 to 4 tbsp bottled lemon juice.
· 1/3 cup rum = 1 tbsp rum flavoring.
Cooking is an art, not a science. You do not have to rely on recipes if you understand the concept of cooking.